Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Organizational Analysis: Apple Inc. Part 1 Apple Inc. History/Background: Apple Inc. is an iconic United States technological company based in Cupertino, California. Apple is engaged in the development of World changing consumer electronic products such a mobile phones, music media devices, tablets, and personal computers. The company also sells and creates operating system software, peripherals and delivery of third-party digital content (iTunes) to consumers. Apple sells its products and services via it 250 U.S. and 140 international retail stores worldwide (Europe, Japan and Asia-Pacific), online stores and third-party wholesalers, retailers and resellers. As of September 29, 2012 Apple has 72,800 full-time employees and 3,300Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The management styles are a little bit different between the two men, but the revenue numbers speak for themself in this situation. AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s structure allows the current CEO to carry on with business as it did in the past with the exception of trying figure out what would Steve Jobs do in this s cenario of keeping Apple a vibrant company. Steve Jobs watched companies like Walt Disney be non-productive after their CEO passed away and did not want that for Apple, so he explained to Tim Cook Ã¢â¬Å"donÃ¢â¬â¢t ever try to figure out what would I have done in a certain situation, just do what is right for the companyÃ¢â¬ (MSNBC). I think this type of leader-follower relationship transcends throughout the Apple organization very well. Stakeholder relationships on the surface seem to be in very good standings. Apple is a leader in so many ways with making superior products; they are number one, who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be a part of the Apple machine? For example, the recently opened Apple store in Grand Central Station, all forms of stakeholders are benefiting from that deal; consumers, employees, Grand Central, New York City etc. Multiply that by various locations around the world and we have a majority of happy stakeholders ready to follow with open arms all because of the structure of how Apple operates its company. Productivity and performance due the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s organizational structure allows Apple to be number one. For example, when netbooks were all the rage and Apple was introducingShow MoreRelatedThe Social Responsibility Of Apple Inc.1687 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCompany of Choice: Apple Inc. The Social Responsibility of Apple Inc. By definition, social responsibility is known as the ethical framework and provides suggestions that an organization or an individuals, feels obliged to act so that the benefit is felt across the organization. It is that duty that every individual has of performing so as to ensure proper maintenance of balancing amid the economy and the organizational ecosystems. Apple Inc. has a well outlined social responsibility that works toRead MoreInternal Environment Of Apple Inc. Essay839 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThis section of the report will examine and analyse the internal environment of Apple Inc. which will cover the organisation structure. The internal environment of Apple Inc. would be examined through the use of SWOT analysis. SWOT analysis is used to analyse an organisation s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, in this case, the organisation is Apple Inc. however for the purposes of this section of the report, only the strengths and weaknesses will be examined and analyse d. MeyerRead MoreApple Inc. - Organization Culture and Change1180 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGraduate School of Management HR587 Managing Organization Change Course Project Draft - Prepared By: Preferred Organization: Apple Inc. - Organization Culture and Change Introduction/Organization: In this draft, we would like to discuss about Apple Inc.Ã¢â¬â¢s organization culture and major organization change happened in the organization and analysis of a successful organization change. Every organization has a culture of its own. And every organization undergoes organization change dependingRead MoreApple Inc. Strategy Formulation1720 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction In this project I am going to describe the Strategic and Marketing Plan of Apple Inc, Which is the biggest consumer electronics provider in the world. It provides wide range of consumer electronics in the market like MAC computers, IPOD, I Phone, LAPTOP, IPAD. It has about 49,400 employs and over 240 Retails Store all around the world wide out of it 218 are in US and 24 in UK rest in other countries. I personally think that before studying the strategy of any organization we need toRead MoreMarketing Analysis : Apple Company866 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesApple Company from this analysis has a competitive advantage in the e- commerce market of possessing the hardware product and software service lines. The closest resemblance to apple market strategy when dealing with products comes from the Amazon Company, because their scale of operating activities and sales force is similar to that for Apple Inc. Fortunately the product or service that is best positioned in the market is that from Company of Apple, who are present on both physical and online e-commerceRead MoreThe Organizational Strategy Of Apple1383 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesApple employs the P-O-L-C framework to develop and implement its strategy rather than the S.W.O.T. model. The P-O-L-C model has four components, namely planning, organizing, leading and controlling. The planning component constitutes the strategy formulation aspect , while the organizing, leading and controlling aspects constitute the strategy implementation aspect. The organizational strategy of Apple, which is a manifestation of its mission and vision statement, is anchored on innovativeness andRead MoreAddressing Power And Political Struggles On Organizational Culture1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEmpowerment A healthy organizational culture paves the way for cohesiveness and productivity. At times, companies will face the reality of power and political struggles due to competing individual interests. These struggles can create unhealthy organizational culture that prevents a business from being efficient and effective and thwart creativity. This is detrimental to businesses that thrive on creativity and innovation. This paper begins with an introduction of Apple Inc. and the leadership roleRead MoreApple1199 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesErendira Franzen Apple INC. Table of Contents Company background Recent Annual Report Analysis for Financial position Vision Mission Statement Corporate Culture Industrial Organizational Model of Above-Average Returns Resource- Based Model of Above-Average Returns Five Forces of Competition Model Competitor Analysis Core Competencies Competitive Advantages SWOT Analysis Corporate Entrepreneurship Strategic Leadership Corporate Governance Analysis of company overall performance Read MoreApple Inc, By Steven Wozniak Essay1213 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesApple Inc. was founded by Steven Jobs and Steven Wozniak in 1976 by selling a designer personal computer, called the Apple 1. Through technology Steven Jobs and Steven Wozniak were able to introduce a mass-produced personal computer called the Apple 2, which was the first color display. With the Apple 2 being a success the partner upcoming revision of the product line was the Macintosh (Mac), a user-friendly product that allows users to interact with screen images rather than text commands. TheRead MoreCase Study : Management People Organization1294 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesASSIGNMENT Ã¢â¬â 2 Introduction Introduction Strategic management Ã¢â¬â It is the set of action used to formulate and implements specific strategies (includes continues planning, monitoring, analysis and decision) that will achieve the competitively superior fit between the organization and environmen t, so as to achieve organizational the goals. Along with it, it is necessary to rise the performance of an organization to its competitors, means the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s average profitability is high as compare to its
Friday, May 15, 2020
THE FACTORS THAT AFFECT STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE A TERM PAPER PRESENTED TO MRS. R. VILLAHERMOSA STA. TERESA COLLEGE BAUAN BATANGAS IN PARTIAL FULLFILLMENT OF REQUIREMENTS FOR THE SUBJECT ENGLISH IV MARCH 2013 PENALOSA, GRACE MARIE D. MANALO ANTHONY CHRISTIAN ARETA ALLYZZA JOIE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: This term paper would not be accomplished without the generous contributions of any individuals and organization. We are very much grateful to themfor their unlimited help and support. Above all, we express our gratitude toour lord godthe almighty, who aided us with his strength, gave us wisdom and patience to complete this term paper. Additionally, we thank our English teacherÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This study focuses on investigating the factors affecting their performance. The researcher adapted the Systems theory input-output model advanced by Ludwig Von Bertalanffy in the early 1950s. This theory, according to Koontz and Weirich (1988) postulates that an organized enterprise does not exist in a vacuum but is dependant on its external environment thus the enterprise receives inputs, transforms them and exports the output to the environment. In this study the university admits students (inputs) and then transforms them through teaching and learning which is reflected by the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ academic performance (output). Many empirical studies are carried out to explore factors affecting college studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ performance. The focus of this research is that student performance in intermediate examination is associated with studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ profile consisted of his attitude towards attendance in classes, time allocation for studies, parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ level of income, motherÃ¢â¬â¢s age and motherÃ¢â¬â¢s education. The research is based on student profile developed on the bases of information and data collected through survey from students of a group of private colleges. Public sector educational institutions are not the focus of this study. Statement of the Problem We will tackle here how these factors affect the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s academic performance, and to understand theShow MoreRelatedfactors affecting buying behavior of students on coffee shops8605 Words Ã |Ã 35 Pagesconsumer behaviour to branded coffee shops. The findings concluded that most respondents visit coffee shops with friends, with locally branded coffee shops the preferred choice. Consumer motivations to branded coffee shops are most influenced by three factors: past experience/ familiarity; convenience of location/travel; and friends and family. With friendly staff, high quality of coffee and food, good atmosphere and good reputation the most important aspects for branded coffee shops. Recent exposure ofRead MoreCollege Students Spending Behavior688 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pageseven the slightest factors of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives will change. The spending behavior of students today is rather different from before leaving a question of what could be the spending factors of students t oday be. According to Neill Valentine DÃ¢â¬â¢Silva (2008) in his article about college spending habits, Students are getting more and more into consumerism every day. Students who used to live away from their home, there are too much of brand awareness and increase the chances of students buying things thatRead MoreBehavior of the Student1605 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesindividual, the scope and limitations, and the definition of important terms used in the study. Introduction The study of human behavior isÃ absolutely essential for anyone to cultivate positive relations with others and avoid unnecessary conflict. The study of human behavior needs to be part of any educational curriculum program. The study of human behavior helps one to understand that itÃ¢â¬â¢s part of our human nature to make mistakes, that good intentions lead to mishaps and that stuff happensRead MoreChapter 11655 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesChapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction The researchers seek to inform their readers about the mental and emotional factors affecting the academic performance of a child in school regarding the working of their parents overseas. Nowadays, as life becomes uneasy to other families here in the Philippines, parents tend to work overseas to offer a convenient living to their children. As a result, it leads to several effects on the emotional and mental aspects of a child. This studyRead MoreStudents with Emotional and Behavioral Disorder (EBD) Essay1517 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesStudents with emotional and behavioral disorder (EBD) exhibit various characteristics relevant to their identified diagnosis. The primary characteristic of students with EBD is problem behaviors are displayed at school, home, community, and other social settings. These problem behaviors are described professionally as externalizing and internalizing behaviors that students with EBD often engage in regularly. Externalizing behaviors are described as acting-out behaviors that are aggressive and/orRead MoreCultural And Social Capital Theory999 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessocial capital theory to explore factors affecting the academic success of Chinese students in Los Angeles Community College. The results of the study indicated that the aspirations of obtaining a higher level academic degree and then transferring to a four-year college or university were considered as the best predictors of academic success for Chinese international students. Whereas, English proficiency was considered to be a weak factor and social interaction factors were not too much related to ChineseRead MoreA Research on Sexually Transmitted Diseases779 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesA Research on Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) STDs are among the very significant and preventable public health issues affecting the society and the globe at large today. In the development stage of human beings, it is of significance that they involve themselves in sexual activities. At this development stage, it is of note that adolescents mostly are at risk of contracting STDs. This is in all cultures because sexual activity is highest during the adolescent stage. This calls for early interventionRead MoreThe Health Belief Model Is Used For Health Promotion And Health Education738 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesthat health behavior is explained by perception of the disease and the strategies available to lower its occurrence. There are four perceptions of the HBM, which are perceived seriousness, perceived benefit, perceived susceptibility and perceived barriers. In addition to that, more constructs are added to health belief model that includes motivating factor, cues to action and self-efficacy. Each of these constructs in combinati on or individually, could be used to determine health behavior. The HBM alsoRead MoreThe Integration Fo A Motivational Strategy Affects Students s Learning888 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTeachers have so many issues related to studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ learning in the classroom and they want to find solutions by researching new ideas and strategies to help these students succeed. In addition, educators are doing research in finding ways on how to implement different approaches to help meet the need of all students. The literature review of this research study will emphasize valuable information to the refine questionÃ¢â¬ To what extent will the integration fo a motivational strategy affects studentsÃ¢â¬â¢sRead More1.Factors That Should Be Considered To Determine How Serious934 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages1. Factors that should be considered to determine how serious a learning or behavior problem is includes persistence of the problem, severity of the problem, speech of progress, motivation, parent al response, relationship with teacher, instructional modifications, adequate instruction, and additional other factors. Persistence of the problem includes determining if the learning or behavior of the student are long term or short term; behaviors and feeling states are not considered a major problem
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
On Internet And E Business Topic: Understanding the scope of E Business Prepared By : Fayza Firoz Ziaul Asif Chowdhury HND- In Business (Finance) FutureED Corporation Prepared For : Fayza Firoz Course Instructor of Internet And E Business FutureED Corporation I am very thankful to everyone who all supported me, for I have completed my assignment on Internet and E business effectively and moreover on time. I am equally grateful to my teacher Mrs Fayza Firoz. She gave me moral support and guided me in different matters regarding the topic. She had been very kind and patient while suggesting me the outlines of this assignment and correcting my doubts. I thank her for her overall supports.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦A simple intranet consists of an internal email system and perhaps a message board service. More sophisticated intranets include Web sites and databases containing company news, forms, and personnel information. Besides email and groupware applications, an intranet generally incorporates internal Web sites, documents, and or databases. The business value of intranet solutions is generally accepted in larger corporations, but their worth has proven very difficult to quantify in terms of time saved or return on investment. An extranet is a computer network that allows controlled access from the outside for specific business or educational purposes. Typically a company extranet is used for people to connect to the company to conduct any number of tasks behind a password protected area. A common application of an extranet is a partner area where partners and resellers can download sales resources such as graphics and content to aid in the sales process. Sometimes referred to as a portal, an extranet can also be used to service clients who need support for products and services purchased from the organization. An enterprise level extranet application can be built upon most technology available today, including dot net, asp, php, html, and other systems. Extranets are extensions to, or segments of, private intranet networks that have been built in many corporations for information sharing and ecommerce. Most extranets use the Internet as the entry point forShow MoreRelatedThe Supply Chain Concept1622 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescompetitive advantage, firms must make key decision involving logistics and operations management to move products and service across the supply chain. The materialization and attractiveness of the Internet has made supply chain management more attainable for business enterprises. Research shows that Internet-derived technology has enabled companies to build and deploy supply chain management systems to perform key business decisions involving product flow and scheduling, process design and selectionRead More The Advance of eBusiness Essay796 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Advance of eBusiness A major societal change that has resulted from the web is the proliferation of businesses on the web (eBusiness). Businesses on the web can be classified into two types: those who have physical stores outside of the web (like Gap) and those that were created for the sole purpose of functioning through the web (like eBay). According to Marshall McLuhan, in his book Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man, Ã¢â¬Å"once a new technology comes in a social milieu it cannot ceaseRead MoreBus615 Midterm Essay965 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesenhanced process modeling, simulation, execution, and monitoring, providing a high level of flexibility while reducing costs.Ã TrueÃ Ã Ã 5.Ã Transaction brokers process online sales transactions.Ã TrueÃ Ã 6.Ã Ebusiness is the buying and selling of goods and services over the Internet.Ã False 7.Ã Ebusiness is something that a business can just go out and buy.Ã False 8.Ã One of the most ineffective ways to set up authentication techniques is by setting up user IDs and passwords.Ã TrueÃ Ã Ã 9.Ã BiometricsRead MoreEcommerce Essay1375 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageson the internet. The Benefits of Ecommerce There are many benefits to setting up a business on-line or extending it to be also on-line. There are also many ways that the payments and purchases can be made on-line, some better and safer than others. I will now give you a brief explanation of the benefits that can be had through the introducing your business to the internet. These days there are businesses of all different sizes, in all different sectors that are using the internet in manyRead MoreSocial Legal and Economic Impact of Ebusiness in Ireland13799 Words Ã |Ã 56 PageseBusiness Fetac Module Assignment 1 Evolution of Internet eBusiness Development amp; Social, Legal and Economic Impact of eBusiness Produced by Brendan Treacy July Ã¢â¬â November 2012 Contents General Introduction 4 Research Methods 4 Evolution of the Internet 6 Dot-Com Boom 7 eBusiness Development 8 Introduction Ã¢â¬â Social Impact 10 Social Impact of eBusiness Ã¢â¬â Positives 10 Improve Life of Disabled 10 Provide Information to those with Illness 11 Online Counselling 11 Personal DevelopmentRead MoreThe Disadvantages That Confront E-Mango.Com If It Does Not Leverage the Competitive Value of the Internet.1201 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesLeveraging the competitive value of the Internet Physical inventories have always been a major cost component of business. Linking to suppliers in real time dramatically enhances the classic goal of inventory Ã¢â¬Å"turn.Ã¢â¬ The Internet provides a multitude of opportunities for radically reducing the costs of designing, manufacturing, and selling goods and services. E-mango.com, a fruit emarketplace, must take advantage of these opportunities or find itself at a significant competitive disadvantage.Read MoreIfsm 3001136 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCompare disruptive and sustaining technologies, and explain how the Internet and WWW caused business disruption. Learning Outcome 3.2: Describe Web 1.0 along with ebusiness and its associated advantages. Learning Outcome 3.3: Compare the four categories of ebusiness models. Learning Outcome 3.4: Describe the six ebusiness tools for connecting and communicating. Learning Outcome 3.5: Identify the four challenges associated with ebusiness. Learning Outcome 3.6: Explain Web 2.0, and identify its fourRead MoreHarley Davidson2426 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesInc: Identifying eBusiness Risks and Related Assurance Services for the eBusiness Marketplace (Case Study) 1. What new risks did Harley-Davidson face by integrating eBusiness into its supply-chain management system and by allowing suppliers to have access to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s Intranet? E-commerce is a fantastic way for businesses to connect with customers around the world in a way that has never before been possible. Yet, that is not to say that eBusiness does not have risksRead MoreCase of Study Dot-Com Crash of 2000 Essay608 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesmanagers raise in its offering (around 7%). Additionally, the auditors because they received payment form the same company which they are evaluating. 3. Who, if anyone, was primarily responsible for the Internet stock bubble? Venture capitalists, because they was influenced by the ebusiness euphoria in the market and bring public companies with questionable business models, or not yet proven themselves operationally and sustainability (e.g. Companies without show profits for at least three quarters)Read MoreBusiness-2-Business vs Business-2-Consumer1818 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesdirectly to the public, a business today needs to have a web site. This paper will discuss Business-2 Business (B2B), Business-2-Consumer (B2C). The paper will look at the marketing concept, and the similarities and differences of brick-and-mortar and eBusiness. Every business, rather online or at a physical site, falls in one of the following categories. A Comparison of Business-2-Business and Business-2-Consumer B2B and B2C are very similar, in fact, B2B typically takes the form of automated processes
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Write about theComparison and Effect of Leadership in Securities Industry. Answer: Literature Review Traditional leadership style is widely based on the traditional method of leading people for accomplishing the organizational goals. The literature study helps in understanding the underlying theoretical developments of the leadership styles. The research study aims to focus on the effects comparison of the leadership styles in the securities industry, especially in the stock market sector. In this literature section, the study would develop the clear understanding about the characteristics and the significance of the traditional leadership style. It has been observed that empathic leaderships are generally applied to the security firms for motivating the workforce and directing them towards the right track in a complex scenario (Cox, Hannif and Rowley 2014). However, on the other hand, the beneficial traits of the traditional leadership help in increasing value of the stock exchanges or the security companies. Hence, the literature study would explore the comparative analysis of the se leadership styles by discussing the suitability in this competitive scenario. Concept of Traditional Leadership In the year of 1947, Max Weber introduced the traditional leadership style along with two other styles, such as charismatic and bureaucratic. As per the conceptual ideas present in this specific leadership style, it is believed that the power is bestowed on a leader by concentrating on the past traditions. Weber was the first to distinguish between the leaders, such as charismatic leaders, bureaucratic leaders, transactional leaders, and the transformational leaders. Traditional leadership styles are often viewed by categorizing their perceptive values. According to Nanjundeswaraswamy (2015), leaders are often viewed as having the power and control due to the people who were previously in the same position and they had that power and control. In other words, as argued by Parker, Holesgrove and Pathak (2015), leaders are usually followed not because of the individuals, but their personal loyalty to the position. The modern leadership was originated from the industrial revolution when employees needed to follow the leaders who were completely authoritative in making decisions. In many of the companies, the leaders follow the fruitful leadership style selected from such traditional method. The types of the traditional leaders and their characteristics are described further: Types of Traditional Leadership Styles According to Nanjundeswaraswamy and Swamy (2014), leadership style is clearly defined by the method of leading the organisation by a person. The traditional method of leading people is characterized by the diverse nature of the leadership. These different types of leadership styles are as follows: Autocratic leadership: An autocratic leader holds the entire responsibility and authority of an organisation. Shu (2015) defined that the autocratic leaders make the decision without consulting any other subordinate in the organisation. This leadership style has no or little flexibility, which may sometimes create the negative impact on the working associates. Donald Trump is an example of autocratic leader in his business and he set a new standard of excellence. Democratic leadership: A democratic leaders consult the other subordinates to make the relevant decision. Unlike the autocratic leadership style, this leadership style is centered on the contribution of the other subordinates (Schedlitzki and Edwards 2017). The leadership style is much flexible and it helps in motivating people associated with the organisation. Steve Jobs is the most significant example of a democratic leader who regained the lost vision of Apple Inc. Strategic Leadership: McCleskey (2014) explained that the strategic leader is often considered as the head of the organisation. The strategic leaders deal with all level of the employees within the organisation. In other words, it can be implied that the strategic leaders fill the gap between the need for practicality and the need for new possibility. Transformational Leadership: The transformational leaders initiate changes in groups, oneself, and in organisation. It is to be indicated that the transformational leaders motivate the other employees in every possible ways. With the help of such leadership skills, the employees can improve their personal and professional attributes as well. Team Leadership: Al-Asfour and Lettau (2014) implied that team leadership often involves with the creation of the clear and vivid picture of the future. The vision of such leadership styles inspire the associates and provide the strengthened approach of direction and purpose. The leaders associated with this leadership style are more likely developing the coordination and cohesiveness among the team members to accomplish the pre-determined goals. Cross-cultural Leadership: The cross cultural leadership style is essential in an organisation where the various types of cultural values are present. This specific leadership style has industrialized as the form of recognizing the front runners working in the contemporary scenario of the globalised market (Shen and Austin 2017). Facilitative Leadership: The facilitative leaders are more dependent on the outcomes and measurements than the actual skills. The facilitative leaders shed lights on the process if it develops the higher performance parameter. Laissez-faire Leadership: In a laissez-faire leadership style, the employees receive the authority to work according to their ability (Lappalainen 2015). The leadership style lacks the closer supervision due to which it is often perceived as less satisfying and least effective. Transactional Leadership: Transactional leadership involves the exchange process whereby the followers receive the tangible rewards and immediate result out of the orders of their leaders. Charismatic Leadership: The charismatic leaders manifest the revolutionary power that transforms the values and beliefs of the followers. The charismatic leaders have the potentiality to improve the visionary and modify the working forms of the associated to derive more benefits. Application of traditional leadership in Security Companies Maintenance of the high empathy is essential for a leader while working in an organisation with all other associates. Security Industry includes the securities firms, banks and asset management companies. These companies serve the public and private clients armed and unarmed services of security (Guinalu and Jordn 2016). The security industry being combined with Financial Markets Association forms a United States industry trade group and represents various kinds of security industries. The traditional leadership approach in the security company can be interpreted in diverse ways. For example, the transformational leaders help the employees to develop their professional and personal skills. The complex technicalities utilized in the security company is a suitable platform for these leaders to enhance the knowledge of the employees by providing them the fruitful training session (Buble, Juras and Mati? 2014). On the other hand, the transactional leaders can reward or punish the employe es as per their performance outcome. Security Company testifies such ability of the employees and provide the insight of selecting right leadership approach. The hypothesis of the research concentrates on the differences between the empathic leadership and traditional leadership. It has been identified that the traditional approaches in the leadership style provides the diverse scenario in which the leaders can collaborate with the workforce. The closer supervision with the workforce helps in creating the vision for future. Yahaya and Ebrahim (2016) implied that leaders need to maintain the empathy but need to follow the right track of leading people. The security companies develop solutions for the business problems or protecting the confidential data. In many of the cases, the security companies deal with the technological aspects that require proper training and skilled attributes of the workers. The application of the traditional leadership helps in developing such efficiency skills of the associated employees. The traditional leaders provide the effective training session or monitor the activities of the employees in order to bring m ore improvement in their performance (McFadden, Stock and Gowen III 2015). The traditional leaders, with their diverse attributes, help the associates to improve their personal and professional skills for generating high end performance outcome. The traditional leaders provide the insights and work on upgrading the attributes of the workforce. The security companies require building trust and reliability to provide the necessary services or solutions. The traditional leaders play the most important role in developing the effectiveness among the workers. Therefore, the security companies require adopting the traditional leadership to build reliability and high standard work ethics. Application of empathic leadership in Security Companies The empathic leadership style depends on the directive and motivational aspects. In order to create the higher level of motivation, the leaders need to consider the situation and the specific direct at the beginning. The empathic leadership style includes the coaching leadership, delegating leadership, instructive leadership, and supportive leadership. Presence of these attributes help in creating the high level of motivation within the workplace. According to Northouse (2018), empathic leaders identifies the needs of the motivation and provides the supports to the associates. In a security company, the techniques used for performing functionalities are quite complex. The empathic leaders need to decide the method of supporting the workers as per the situations. For instance, when one employee requires directive leadership at the initial stage, it is essential to provide the right direction before allocating any job. The supports from the empathic leaders are necessary in such circum stances. While applied on the security companies, the empathic leaders need to develop the right direction and enriched knowledge about the security services and technological skills. Developing the higher skills in a dynamic and complex scenario creates the greater impacts on the minds of the employees. Khan and Adnan (2014) explained that the empathic leaders share the information with the associates to generate the sense of responsibility and direct efficiency for performing in a better manner. Security companies require the staffs that are quite responsible towards their works and maintain confidentiality while working any security projects. During the development of any complex project or high level of security services that are needed to be delivered to the potential clients, the security company requires the association of empathic leaders. Comparative analysis The traditional leaders and empathic leaders have the diverse characteristics while applied into the business. According to Ward (2016), the traditional leaders seek stability while the companies face the challenges from both the internal and external markets. On the contrary, Bowers, Hall and Srinivasan (2017) empathic leaders believe in rapid changes in the technologies and functionalities to develop more upgraded solutions. The traditional leaders are more focused in achieving the short term objectives whereas the empathic leaders create insights for the long term future prospects. In the security industry, this long term aspects are quite necessary, but in case of crisis, it is essential to fulfill the short term objectives as well. Another comparison provided by Yahaya and Ebrahim (2016) to define the traits of the traditional leaders. It is stated that the traditional leaders believe in creating bureaucracy, regulations and rules to develop the high level of performance outcome . On the contrary, the empathic leaders are much inclined towards creating networks, sharing vision, and establishing long term missions. However, it can be implied that in spite of the value based implications derived from the traditional approaches, the security industry can adopt more innovative approaches by developing the empathic views of the modern leaders. Relevancy of Conducting the Research (Research Question) The research explores the leadership traits present in the traditional and modern approach. It has been observed that the current business world is facing considerable challenges due to the continuous changes and technological development. A leader is the pathfinder to direct the employees towards the right track and strengthen their skills to take active participation in a competitive scenario. The research study helps in identifying the traditional leadership styles and empathic leadership styles. The comparative analysis present in the research provides the idea about the most suitable leadership approaches that can be applied to the security industry. The extensive research information gathered from the secondary source and the theoretical analysis of different leadership style clarify the idea of the subject area much significantly. Hence, it can be implied that the research is conducted to strengthen the analytical skills regarding the application of most suitable leadership st yle in the security firms. Gap in the Literature The major gap in the literature is the time constraints. The entire leadership study is vast and it requires enough time to cover up the core concepts of the leadership style. The time constraints prevented the study to be described more elaborately. However, the changing business scenario often demands for the diverse nature of the leaders based on the situation. Therefore, the exact form of leadership suitable for this industry is still to be argued. References Al-Asfour, A. and Lettau, L., 2014. Strategies for leadership styles for multi-generational workforce.Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics,11(2), p.58. Bowers, M.R., Hall, J.R. and Srinivasan, M.M., 2017. Organizational culture and leadership style: The missing combination for selecting the right leader for effective crisis management.Business Horizons,60(4), pp.551-563. Buble, M., Juras, A. and Mati?, I., 2014. The relationship between managers leadership styles and motivation.Management: journal of contemporary management issues,19(1), pp.161-193. Cox, A., Hannif, Z. and Rowley, C., 2014. Leadership styles and generational effects: Examples of US companies in Vietnam.The International Journal of Human Resource Management,25(1), pp.1-22. Guinalu, M. and Jordn, P., 2016. Building trust in the leader of virtual work teams.Spanish Journal of Marketing-ESIC,20(1), pp.58-70. Khan, A.Z. and Adnan, N., 2014. Impact of leadership styles on organizational performance.International Journal of Management Sciences,2(11), pp.501-515. Lappalainen, P., 2015. Predictors of effective leadership in industryshould engineering education focus on traditional intelligence, personality, or emotional intelligence?.European Journal of Engineering Education,40(2), pp.222-233. McCleskey, J.A., 2014. Situational, transformational, and transactional leadership and leadership development.Journal of Business Studies Quarterly,5(4), p.117. McFadden, K.L., Stock, G.N. and Gowen III, C.R., 2015. Leadership, safety climate, and continuous quality improvement: impact on process quality and patient safety.Health care management review,40(1), pp.24-34. Nanjundeswaraswamy, T., 2015. Leadership styles and quality of work life in SMEs.Management Science Letters,5(1), pp.65-78. Nanjundeswaraswamy, T.S. and Swamy, D.R., 2014. Leadership styles.Advances in management,7(2), p.57. Northouse, P.G., 2018.Leadership: Theory and practice. Sage publications. Parker, D.W., Holesgrove, M. and Pathak, R., 2015. Improving productivity with self-organised teams and agile leadership.International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management,64(1), pp.112-128. Schedlitzki, D. and Edwards, G., 2017.Studying leadership: traditional and critical approaches. Sage. Shen, L. and Austin, L., 2017. Communication and job satisfaction.Social Issues in the Workplace: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice, p.355. Shu, C.Y., 2015. The impact of intrinsic motivation on the effectiveness of leadership style towards on work engagement.Contemporary Management Research,11(4), p.327. Ward, J., 2016.Keeping the family business healthy: How to plan for continuing growth, profitability, and family leadership. Springer. Yahaya, R. and Ebrahim, F., 2016. Leadership styles and organizational commitment: literature review.Journal of Management Development,35(2), pp.190-216.
Wednesday, March 11, 2020
Executive summary of overbooking Essays Executive summary of overbooking Essay Executive summary of overbooking Essay Travelodge is the first budget hotel launched in 1985 in UK. It operates 380 hotels with 26,500 room in the UK. Travelodge is be aftering to turn 1000 more hotels by 2020. It employs above 5500 people and 87 % of the engagement are made online. The UK hotel market is estimated around 700,000 suites ( beginning: Melvyn Gold, Qualification of serviced adjustment supply in UK , December 2007 ) UK hotel market is segmented chiefly into four classs, Brander full service which has 14 % of the market portion, branded budget 12 % branded mid market 62 % and unbranded mugwumps 62 % .the current economic environment has seen addition in bead out of unbranded mugwumps and people prefer to book with branded budget due to web coverage, trade name strength strong balance sheet and distribution. Grant Hearn, Travelodge CEO, commented: 2008 was another record twelvemonth of growing for the Travelodge trade name with over 19 % gross growing . Room sold increased by 9 per centum to 6 million The growing of Travelodge has been unbelievable but company faced a few challenges and one of the major challenge company is confronting is overbooking. Overbooking is one of the of import gross direction tool in hotels operation direction to run efficaciously and heighten profitableness. Gross Management is seen as an of import technique in the hotels operation and hence to maximise their grosss, hotels are progressively implementing Revenue Management patterns ( Hwang and Wen, 2009 ) . As a effect of implementing such systems, many companies in the service sector such as hotels consistently overbook capacity in order to maximise the gross at one peculiar point in clip ( Wangenheim and Bayon, 2007 ) . If overbooking is non implemented right it can ensue in loss of room gross, loss of hotel repute, decreased client trueness and lessening hotels profitableness. This study discusses the chief features of overbooking and its impact on the company in theoretical and practical prospective. Theoretical penetrations of overbooking One of the cardinal constructs in Revenue Management is overbooking. The pattern of overbooking can be defined as corroborating more reserves than the hotels available physical capacity to supply the service. ( Ivanov, 2006 ; Ivanov, 2007 ; Chiang et Al 2007 ; McGill, new wave Ryzin,1999 ; Kamath, Bhosale, Manjrekar,2008 ) . Hence, the aim of overbooking is to better the expected net income and alternatively of selling each room one time, net income can be increased by selling it several times ( Birkenheuer, 2009 ) . In fact, overbooking as an built-in portion of Revenue Management has received important attending from literature. From a historical position, overbooking is present in the surveies of Falkson ( 1969 ) , Simon ( 1968 ) , Vickrey ( 1972 ) and many others. The major aim of these surveies was to sketch a control pattern for cancellations. Nowadays, overbooking has become an emerging affair in industries with perishable merchandises. It yields considerable impacts on companies public presentation. In footings of the cordial reception industry, the profitableness of hotels is mostly dependent on their use of capacity. Conversely, demand for suites and extensions of stay are really unstable and are difficult to foretell ( new wave Ryzin, 2005 ) . Hoteliers are challenged by how to find the business of suites for clients who are financially unequal and meanwhile maintain a stable rate of demand given the difficult to foretell fortunes ( Okumus, 2004 ) . This is all possible utilizing overbooking, which enables proper allotment of resources and optimisation of gross revenues. However, maximising the figure of sold suites per dark can non be easy accomplished. One of the most ambitious undertakings of the hotel operation direction is to cover with the unpredictable nature of the clients, because non all booked reserves will turn into existent service ingestion ( Lai et al, 2005 ) . To this terminal overbooking may imply a company from the cordial reception industry non being able to function all its clients decently because of lower figure of ab initio expected people that do non look as agreed. In this regard, overbooking may hold both positive and negative impact. On the one manus, it may ensue in refusal to supply a service, but on the other, it can besides take the signifier of compensation for those booking agents, who can non have the value bundle they have agreed on and paid for ( Kimes and Wagner, 2001 ) . From their practical experience directors know that all non engagements confirmed for a peculiar day of the month will be truly used ( Ivanov, 2006 ) . There are several possible scenarios that can do this. Despite of their reserves, because of different fortunes some invitees cancel their stay and end their reserves, some does non call off their engagement but fail to demo up, or other invitees cut down their stay and as a consequence the room remains unsold and therefore capacity non use is lost everlastingly ( Ivanov, 2006, Talluri et Al, 2004 ; Chiang et Al, 2007 ; Hung, 2004 ; Bitran ; Leon, 1989 ) . Therefore hotels adopt overbooking in order to protect against losingss with no-shows and to countervail the consequence of cancellations and shortened corsets ( Hwang and Wen, 2009 ; Kamath et Al, 2008 ; Selmi, 2008 ; Chiang et Al 2007 ; Hung, 2004 ; Sulistio, Kim, and Buyya, 2008 ) . Impacts of overbooking on hotels operation direction Apart from the chance of the hotel to minimise the consequence of reserve uncertainnesss there are possibilities the figure of cancellations and no shows to be less so the figure of overbookings, so some of the clients will non be accommodated and should be walked to other hotels ( Ivanov, 2006 ) . Therefore, if a hotel decides to use overbooking in its operations it should pull off carefully non merely the chance cost of the unsold room but besides the overbooking costs for alternate hotel adjustment and transit that the hotel has to pay in order to counterbalance a client in instance of overbooking ( Ivanov, 2006 ; Hung, 2004 ) . Besides the apparent fiscal costs happening in instance of walking a invitee holding already booked, costs the lost hotel s good will and repute and the hazards of dissatisfaction, loss of trust, loss of future client trueness are much more expensive for the hotel ( Selmi, 2007 ) . Overbooking policy and control Harmonizing to Selmi ( 2007 ) , the hazard of client refusal appears if the overbooking is no accomplished exactly . In this respect, Kimes ( 1989 ) emphasized on the importance of a clearly stated overbooking policy within the hotel operation direction. The aim of overbooking policy and control is to happen an optimum overbooking degree to maximise the expected gross and to minimise the possible hazard of denied service ( Chiang et al 2007 ) . Netessine and Shumsky ( 2002 ) as cited by Ivanov ( 2006 ; 2007 ) proposed a basic mathematical theoretical account for ciphering the optimum figure of overbookings and harmonizing to his findings the optimum overbooking degree is reciprocally related to the sum of cancellation charges applied the closer the cancellation charge to the room rate, the lower the lost benefit from the unoccupied room and the less stimuli to overbook . In instance of presence of guaranteed and non-guaranteed engagements, Ivanov ( 2007 ) suggests that the optimum figure of overbookings has to be set individually for each type. Alternatively, harmonizing to Hung ( 2004 ) factors that could be considered while puting overbooking bounds include: chances of cancellation and no-show ; room demand distribution over clip and conditions of length of stay ; stay extension chances influenced by the intended length of stay. Furthermore Hung ( 2004 ) assumes that the proportion of cancellations depends on the client class, intended length of stay, twenty-four hours of hebdomad of first stay over, and clip until first stay over. Impact of overbooking on client behaviour Harmonizing to Talluri et Al ( 2004 ) overbooking is often cited in client ailments and remains the primary beginning of dissatisfaction. Furthermore, consequences of an experiment made by Wangenheim and Bayon ( 2007 ) confirm that the pattern of overbooking is likely to be perceived as unjust by service clients. Wangenheim and Bayon ( 2007 ) analyze behavioural effects of the equity towards overbooking by suggesting and corroborating several hypotheses. Harmonizing to their research the negative effects of service failure originating from overbooking are stronger for the high position client than for the low position clients and hence, hotelkeepers have to carefully overbook its high-values categories . Additionally, Wangenheim and Bayon ( 2007 ) stress on the importance that if a hotel ignores the log-run behaviour effects of overbooking, this may take to negative effects on its operations. One such negative effect is proposed to be a client who faces a denied service due to overbooking and still remains hotels client because of either high fixed exchanging barriers or current trueness rank plans. However, in response to the service failure the client may set its investing into the exchange relationship non merely by diminishing the figure of gross revenues, but besides by seeking to take advantage of price reduction offers or buying lower degree services from the hotel ( Wangenheim and Bayon, 2007 ) . On the other manus, Hwang and Wen ( 2009 ) analyze the consequence of the sensed equity toward hotels overbooking and compensation patterns by analyzing clients reactions toward hotel overbooking. Some of their most critical findings from this survey are that adult females are more likely than work forces to experience that overbooking is unjust , clients perceptual experiences to the equity of overbooking is non affected by other client variables including length of stay, rank position, remunerator beginning, reserve channel, and reserve clip ; participants perceived equity toward the hotel s overbooking and compensation policies were strongly correlated with positive viva-voce promotion. One of the most of import consequences of the research shows that the sensed equity of the participants toward the hotel s compensation policy is related to their trueness. Therefore, Hwang and Wen ( 2009 ) propose that hotels should see planing compensations that help positively influence cli ents perceived fairness toward overbooking and that encourage clients on-going backing and trueness. In a decision, issues like finding the optimum figure of extra reserves, minimising compensation cost, and covering with the negative effects from clients confronting a denied service are considered as the most ambitious countries of the pattern of overbooking and every hotel endeavoring to maximise its profitableness should non undervalue them ( Sulistio, Kim, and Buyya, 2008 ) . Practical Deductions of overbooking As the cordial reception industry is germinating, hotel proprietors and hotel directors are invariably seeking to update their attacks in order to accomplish optimum allotment of resources. Novelli, Schmitz and Spencer ( 2006 ) have discovered that hotelkeepers make every attempt to use modern-day engineerings in their concern. By this deduction, hotel directors and proprietors do non merely prolong competitory advantage, but besides create new merchandises and services. In position of this, it can be concluded that execution of new engineerings that create new merchandises is a technological invention ( Evangelista, 1999 ) . On the other manus, the execution of advanced engineerings to a service company can hold a important influence in footings of operational efficiency ( Freeman and Soete, 1997 ) . Additionally, Porter ( 1990 ) supports the latter thesis by foregrounding that the public presentation of a company is extremely dependent on new engineerings. In position of technological inventions today many hotels recognize the importance of overbooking pattern and therefore its execution has become by and large recognized measure toward hotels successful operations. The practical application of Revenue Management and Overbooking incorporates the undermentioned built-in elements ( Vinod, 2004 ) : Figure 1 Revenue Management application Degree centigrades: UsersamadDesktopCapture.JPG Beginning: Vinod, B. ( 2004 ) , Journal of Revenue A ; Pricing Management Market cleavage: Segmenting clients harmonizing to their penchants and disbursement forms is a must to do certain the most appropriate clients with absolutely fitted properties are sold the proper suites that can maximise grosss ( Oliveira, 2003 ) . Specifying rate categories ( stock list pooling ) : Involves making groups of the bing rates that close in footings of value ( Vinod, 2004 ) . Demand prediction: demand prediction is indispensable to find room tenancy. In the context of Revenue Management it is of import as it can command tenancy utilizing the information of length of stay. This can be achieved by possessing informations on rate category demand and continuance of stay ( Vinod, 2004 ) . Supply prediction: earlier and late check-out procedures can besides find room tenancy, which is an component besides involved in Revenue Management. Overbooking control: encompasses gross revenues of suites transcending the maximal available figure of suites to countervail for no shows and cancellations. However, there are some hazards associated with overbooking as it may ensue in grudges from unsated clients who have received an inappropriate room. In such instances hotelkeepers offer compensations and periphery benefits ( Smith, 1982 ) . Harmonizing to Vinod ( 1992 ) Revenue Management can convey 20 % of the entire grosss. Revenue mix control and exclusion processing: involves be aftering of import hereafter day of the months with discretion and fiting them with overbooking degrees ( Vinod, 2004 ) . Performance measuring and direction coverage: closely size uping the Revenue Management processes is indispensable to track down the information quality and future be aftering footing. However, in order to take a hotel into a victorious way, overbooking has to be managed and controlled really carefully. Ivanov ( 2006 ) defines the direction of overbooking as a set of managerial techniques and activities connected with uninterrupted planning, reserve and control and he outlined two chief groups of activities that should be performed in the day-to-day hotel operation. The hotel directors should on one manus, to specify an optimum figure of overbookings for each day of the month and continuously to modify it harmonizing to the market alterations of the hotel and the specific demand and booking spiels and on the other manus, to pull off carefully determinations and operational activities related with walking invitees with overbookings. In this respect, Ivanov ( 2006 ) proposes that factors such as length of stay, suites rates and client position have to be considered by hotel directors while covering with walking a invitee with confirmed reserve. Additionally, Kimes ( 1989 ) analyzes several managerial concerns indispensable for an effectual overbooking pattern and states that top direction can non presume tha t Revenue Management will merely go on, it requires careful planning and preparation . Therefore employees have to be intensively trained in order to clearly understand the purpose and features of overbooking. Furthermore, employees who are straight covering with overbooking determinations have to be sporadically trained how to act in possible client struggles and to take their ain determinations in an unfamiliar state of affairs ( Ivanov, 2006 ) . In order to be minimized the possible client dissatisfaction in instance of overbooking, it is critical for the hotel to set up service recovery programmes with standardised processs and to do employees to be cognizant and follow them ( Ivanov, 2006 ) For a profitable applied overbooking in the cordial reception industry, hotels must understand non merely consumers behaviour but besides to see the impact of competition and the presently economic state of affairs that imposes important supply and demand fluctuations. As hotels compete with each other in order to pull more clients, Revenue Management determinations of one hotel necessarily act upon the demand for other hotels in the same part or country. However, recent tendencies propose that hotels should join forces with is rivals that consequence in increased figure of formed confederations with each other to maximise their gross ( Chiang et al, 2007 ) Revenue Management s challenges in the cordial reception industry As explained before, Revenue Management finds application to two important industries: cordial reception and air hose. The first one, nevertheless, is much more complex in footings of industry impregnation and suites direction. This creates hurdlings for the optimu m operation of Revenue Management techniques. In the hotel industry Revenue Management can be applied either locally or via centralised system. The 2nd one involves garnering informations and taking determinations from a focal site for other belongingss. In pattern merely a limited figure of hotels and hotel ironss are able to pull off centralized informations processing and hence the bulk of participants on the cordial reception industry opt for belongings based Revenue Management. Recommendations for future research Despite of the acknowledged importance of overbooking as one the most effectual successful Revenue Management techniques used in hotel operation and widely discussed subject in research literature, there are no current surveies discoursing the overbooking direction of Bulgarian hotels and its impact on their operation. Therefore, future research may concentrate on the possible application of Revenue Management techniques to the Bulgarian cordial reception industry. Future surveies may besides concentrate on the demand side of Bulgarian touristry as the state has witnessed fluctuating visitant rates during the past two decennaries despite the turning net incomes generated by the peculiar industry. Decisions In order to last in the ferocious competition and to bring forth more gross while utilizing the same sum of resorts it is necessary and critical to the hotels operation direction to utilize efficaciously its reserve stock list and to increase its tenancy rate ( Hung, 2004 ) . Revenue Management techniques and the theoretical accounts of overbooking if applied suitably would maximise the grosss of hotels ( Kamath et al, 2008 ) . However, the possibilities of client dissatisfaction, and hazard of loss of repute because of denied service, force many hotels to avoid the pattern of overbooking. Therefore, before hotel directors to deicide whether or non to implement overbooking they should first see what Birkenheuer ( 2009 ) explained the best appraisal of hazard and chance will supply the best net income . In this survey we have outlined the dynamic nature of service industries and have demonstrated the importance of Revenue Management and most notably one of its most important facets overbooking. We have narrowed the range of this research down to the cordial reception industry and have found major differences in the demand patterns towards such companies in the former industry. Some clients prefer flexible cancellation footings, while others are non much attentive to that. Hoteliers offer differential pricing to their ain advantage to fudge against fluctuating demand. We have besides found that permutation is one of the most effectual method of pull offing overbooking patterns, but yet a cost/benefit analysis must be performed in order to track down the existent effects. Basically, within the current dynamic determination doing state of affairs in the cordial reception industry, overbooking degrees have been found to hold important gross maximising belongingss. In position of this, through this survey we have discovered some of the main direction aims that could be achieved through overbooking in the model of Revenue Management: net income maximization ; capa city allotment ; maximization of mean gross per client ; maximization of net present value ; and minimisation of client grudges. Finally, as cordial reception industry on a planetary graduated table is a aggregate volume-driven concern, overbooking has become an emerging subject as vacant suites do non convey any net incomes. However, possibly even more important remains the job how to pull off client letdown, in instances they can non be relocated to similar hotels as a consequence of overbooking.
Monday, February 24, 2020
1. Paper - Essay Example In this regard, the essay aims to provide two concrete business examples of KantÃ¢â¬â¢s CI theory by elaborating on the dilemma and by providing appropriate solutions, as deemed ethically appropriate. The term lay-offs are defined as Ã¢â¬Å"suspension or termination of employment (with or without notice) by the employer or managementÃ¢â¬ (Business Dictionary, par. 1). The option for managementÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to layoff employees are evaluated when organizations are faced with any of the following: business slow-down, financial difficulties, work interruption, positions are no longer required, among others. More significantly, justifications could be categorized as any of the following moves, to wit: to make strategical organizational changes, to make necessary improvements, or ultimately, to save the company from further dilemmas. Despite the mentioned justifications, layoffs have been known to cause emotional pain, stress, suffering and anxiety for potential employees to be laid off and to the supervisors who are appointed, by responsibility, to inform the employees of the decision. Ethical dilemmas of layoffs ensue when employees need to be terminated despite appropriate and expected performance delivered according to their job descriptions. Using KantÃ¢â¬â¢s CI, Gilbert emphasized that Ã¢â¬Å"applying a rights and duties approach to the ethical analysis of layoffs, it appears that the central question is whether an employee has a moral right to his or her job, and whether supervisors then have a corresponding moral duty not to terminate that employee until he or she forfeits that rightÃ¢â¬ (Gilbert, 16). Using KantÃ¢â¬â¢s basic premise of the CI, the supervisor is given the duty by senior management to layoff identified employees to ensure that the organization would survive, an impending financial threat that could be due to recession, depending on their performance in the company, length of service, and other