Monday, May 20, 2019
This essay will review the writings of Hawthorne, the myth of the gentle worker, and class bias in psychology an term by D. Bramel and R. Friend. It will then go on to further critique academic articles that both support and disagree with the primary source and demonstrate how the Hawthorne studies collapse influenced contemporary organizations. The Hawthorne experimental studies conducted at the Western Electric Comp any(prenominal) whole kit has attracted considerable amounts of sharp diminutive scrutiny it has practically become an intellectual battle (Miner, J. 006. p. 68) as it has been interpreted in various ways. The studies aboriginally concluded that social and psychological factors be responsible for workers productivity and job satisfaction. Many psychologists, sociologist and critics attack the explore procedures and criticize the analyses of the information and their conclusions. Bramel and Friend (1981) are a classic example of those exact critics who consider the Hawthorne studies to be contradictive, distorted and overall undeserving of receiving recognition and respect for their query.Bramel and Friends main aim in the article however is to show not simply that Mayos conclusions were unrealistic and politically right but to alternatively demonstrate that in that location is bias at the level of interpretation of the available data (p. 868) and how this had a negative influence in installing the runs, due to the assumption that their workers stick out be manipulated and fooled with ease (p. 869). on that point are many other critics that strongly support the views and opinions presented by Bramel and Friend in regards to the Hawthorne studies and how they consider the research to be insufficient and mis heading.The article Shining New Light on the Hawthorne Illumination Experiments by M. Kawa, M. French, and A. turn off (2011) rein withdraws the arguments that feature in Bramel and Friends work. Like them they agree that the stu dies performed at the Western Company Works provided inconsistent evidence and that all experiments conducted including the results were seriously flawed. Basically they conclude that the inadequacies in the experimental designs tell an sketchy and sometimes inaccurate story and show the inconsistent associations amid on the job(p) conditions and productivity. p. 546) The article Questioning the Hawthorne effect shares the exact same views that were established in Hawthorne the myth of the docile worker. It argues that the data collected from the experiments had never been analyzed rigorously, no systematic evidence was implemented and the inconsistent ways in which the experiments were executed has lead to a misleading interpretation of what happened. (Questioning the Hawthorne Effect, 2009, p. 74)Another article that strongly disapproves of the Hawthorne studies is A. Careys article The Hawthorne Studies a innate Criticism. In Careys (1967) opinion the research conducted is ne arly absent of scientific deserve and the conclusions drawn are supported by so little evidence that its basically unbefitting that the studies have gained a respected place in spite of appearance scientific discipline and have held this place for so long. (p. 403) However Carey does believe the vastness of the studies is really declining.In his opinion later studies are struggling to display any reliable transactionhip between the social satisfaction of industrial workers and their work performance(p. 403). Carey criticizes Mayos get along, research and assumptions and claims that his reports are completely bias and invalid. He states that the Statistical analysis of the relevant data did not show any conclusive evidence in favor of the first hypothesis (p. 405) which makes it extremely severe to develop a correct conclusion.Although there are critics that attack the Hawthorne studies and downplay the work of Mayo and Roethlisberger there is also many others that completely support the research conducted and believe it has been of crucial importance and consider it to be a major intellectual building block of organizational behavior (Miner, J. 2006. p. 68. ) A. Brannigan and W. Zwermans (2001) article the authorized Hawthorne Effect completely disagrees with the arguments that were presented by Bramel and Friend. Their article in contrast strongly supports the Hawthorne studies and emphasizes just how valuable they.Brannigan and Zwerman actually view the studies as being the single most important investigation of the human dimensions of industrial relations in the early 20th century (Brannigan, A. Zwerman, W. 2001. p. 55). They recognize the fact that the Hawthorne studies have received harsh fine disapproval over the decades due to buckramial flaws in the research and experiments conducted. However Brannigan and Zwerman are able to require past that and purely see the innovative ideas that grew around these studies.They express that the main idea should not be undermined by these shortcomings and that sometimes the actual idea itself is more(prenominal) meaningful then the evidence on which it is based. (p. 59). B. Reigers article Lessons in Productivity and People also disagrees with the negative statements that are directed towards the Hawthorne studies. Reigers article aims to show how the studies executed had an enormous influence in the way managers and supervisors now interact with their employees.Which in result has compulsively affected worker productivity, Due to implementing a less mechanical view and paying more prudence to the human influences within the workplace. Not only does Reiger (1995) view the studies as being critical to the positive change in the company and employee relationships but they also provided some clear insights into industrial operations and psychology, in-person management, organizational development and human resources (p. 58).Overall his intention is to show how the studies contribute d to the improvement in manager and employee relationships by providing the employees with respect, attention and recognition will then in turn increase their productivity and efficiency. C. Hall (1984) further backs up the views of Reiger in his article Hawthorne Effects- Still a Potent Supervisory Tool. Although the experiments were conducted decades ago Hall comfort believes that they still have practical prize today. (p. 6).Hall concludes that employees respond with greater job efficiency when they sense that they are being observed or regarded as important valued members of an organization ( p. 6) and that The behavioral approach can positively affect performance, group dynamics, encourage cooperation and overall increase work satisfaction. The Hawthorne Studies and the behavioral approach has compete a major role in shaping todays organizations, from the way manager interact with their employees, the way they map open communication and the way they design motivate jobs we are able to detect elements of the behavioral approach (Robbins, S. Bergman, R.Stagg, I. Coulter, M. 2012. p. 54) Telstras call centers are a classic example of a contemporary organization that has been influenced by the Hawthorne effect and the behavioral approach. Within the center they have managers, supervisors and team leaders that create a working environment that aims to provide a premium employee experience. More specifically their job entails implementing and executing programs, supervising and motivating their workers to ensure that they are effectively completing their tasks and meeting objectives and to basically respect and pay attention to their faculty in order to establish good relations and co operation.The efficient supervision that takes place within the factories has definitely been influenced by the Hawthorne studies. They have recognized through the Hawthorne studies that subtly observing the workers and making them feel handle a valuable member of the compa ny keeps them motivated which in result maximizes employee productivity. The Hawthorne studies has played a fundamental role in the progression of organizational behavior and influenced the positive change in the relationship between managers and their employees.Although there have been flaws and inconsistencies in the ideas, research and conclusions that were developed they are still extremely influential. The results emphasized the value of group dynamics, interaction and applying a humanistic management approach. These factors overall are a crucial force of producing greater effectiveness and productivity in employees. Although there are critics that have attempted to crush the importance of the Hawthorne studies through their harsh criticisms it still has done little to shake the essential validity and influence of the research. (Miner, J. 2006. p. 67) References Bramel, D. & Friend, R. 1981). Hawthorne, the falsehood of the Docile Worker, and Class Bias in Psychology. American Psychologist. 36,8,867-878. Brannigan, A. & Zwerman, W. (2001). The real Hawthorne Effect. Society, 38(2), 55-60. Retrieved from ABI/INFORM GLOBAL. (Document ID 65713065). Carey,A. (1967). The Hawthorne Studies A Radical Criticism. AmericaSociologyReview, 32,3,401-416. Finance and Economics Light Work Questioning the Hawthorne Effect. (2009, June). The economist. 391(8634),74. Retrieved from ABI/INFORM GLOBAL (Document ID 1740340161) Hall, C. (1984). Hawthorne Effects- Still a potent supervisory tool. Supervision, 46 (10), 6.Retrieved from ABI/INFORM GLOBAL. (Document ID 1322247). Izawa, M. French, M. Hedge, A. (2011). Shining new light on the Hawthorne Illumination experiment. Human Factors, 53,528. Retrieved from schoolman Research Library. (Document ID 2532057371). Miner, J. (2006) Organization Behavior 3 Historical Origins, Theoretical Foundations and the Future. America ME Sharpe. Reiger, B. (1995). Lessons in productivity and people. upbringing and development, 49 (10), 56. Retrieved from ABI/INFORM GLOBAL. (Document ID 7011573). Robbins, S. Bergman, R. Stagg, I. Coulter, M. (2012) Management 6th Edition. Sydney Pearson Australia Group.